12

## The UNIX system family tree: Research and BSD

First Edition (V1) | Second Edition (V2) | Third Edition (V3) | Fourth Edition (V4) | Fifth Edition (V5) | Sixth Edition (V6) -----* \ | \ | \ | Seventh Edition (V7) | \ | \ 1BSD 32V | \ 2BSD---------------* \ / | \ / | \/ | 3BSD | | | 4.0BSD 2.79BSD | | 4.1BSD --------------> 2.8BSD | | 4.1aBSD -----------\ | | \ | 4.1bBSD \ | | \ | ------ 4.1cBSD --------------> 2.9BSD / | | Eighth Edition | 2.9BSD-Seismo | | | +----<--- 4.2BSD 2.9.1BSD | | | +----<--- 4.3BSD -------------> 2.10BSD | | / | Ninth Edition | / 2.10.1BSD | 4.3BSD Tahoe-----+ | | | \ | | | \ | v | 2.11BSD Tenth Edition | | | 2.11BSD rev #430 4.3BSD NET/1 | | v 4.3BSD Reno | *---------- 4.3BSD NET/2 -------------------+------------- | | | | 386BSD 0.0 | | BSD/386 ALPHA | | | | 386BSD 0.1 ------------>+ | BSD/386 0.3.[13] | \ | 4.4BSD Alpha | | 386BSD 1.0 | | BSD/386 0.9.[34] | | 4.4BSD | | | / | | | | 4.4BSD-Encumbered | | | NetBSD 0.8 | BSD/386 1.0 | | | | FreeBSD 1.0 NetBSD 0.9 | BSD/386 1.1 | | .----- 4.4BSD Lite | FreeBSD 1.1 | / / | \ | | | / / | \ | FreeBSD 1.1.5 .---|--------' / | \ | | / | / | \ | FreeBSD 1.1.5.1 / | / | \ | | / NetBSD 1.0 <-' | \ | | / | | \ | FreeBSD 2.0 <--' | | BSD/OS 2.0 | \ | | FreeBSD 2.0.5 \ | BSD/OS 2.0.1 | .------------------ 4.4BSD Lite2 | | | \ | | | | | | | .-----|------Rhapsody | | | | | | | | NetBSD 1.3 | | | | | | | OpenBSD 2.3 | | | | | | BSD/OS 3.0 | FreeBSD 2.1 | | | | | | | | NetBSD 1.1 ------. BSD/OS 2.1 | FreeBSD 2.1.5 | | | \ | | | | | NetBSD 1.2 \ BSD/OS 3.0 | FreeBSD 2.1.6 | | | \ OpenBSD 2.0 | | | | | | \ | | | FreeBSD 2.1.6.1 | | | \ | | | | | | | \ | | | FreeBSD 2.1.7 | | | | | | | | | | | NetBSD 1.2.1 | | | FreeBSD 2.1.7.1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | -FreeBSD 2.2 | | | | | | \ | | | | | | FreeBSD 2.2.1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 2.2.2 | | | OpenBSD 2.1 | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 2.2.5 | | | | | | | | | | OpenBSD 2.2 | | | | | NetBSD 1.3 | | | FreeBSD 2.2.6 | | | | | | | | | | | NetBSD 1.3.1 | BSD/OS 3.1 | | | | | | OpenBSD 2.3 | | | | | | NetBSD 1.3.2 | | | FreeBSD 2.2.7 | | | | | | | | | | | | | BSD/OS 4.0 | v | | | | | | | FreeBSD 2.2.8 | | | | | | | | | | | OpenBSD 2.4 | FreeBSD 3.0 <-------- | | v | | | | | NetBSD 1.3.3 | | ---FreeBSD 3.1 | | | | | | | | | BSD/OS 4.0.1 | FreeBSD 3.2---- | NetBSD 1.4 OpenBSD 2.5 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 3.3 | | | | NetBSD 1.4.1 | | | | | | | | | OpenBSD 2.6 | | FreeBSD 3.4 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | BSD/OS 4.1 FreeBSD 4.0 | | | | | NetBSD 1.4.2 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 3.5 | | | | | OpenBSD 2.7 | | | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 3.5.1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | *---FreeBSD 4.1 | | | | | | | | | | | (?) | | | | | FreeBSD 4.1.1 | | / | | | | | | | | / | | | | | FreeBSD 4.2 Darwin/ | NetBSD 1.4.3 | | | | Mac OS X | OpenBSD 2.8 BSD/OS 4.2 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 10.0 NetBSD 1.5 | | | FreeBSD 4.3 | | | | | | | | | | OpenBSD 2.9 | | | | | NetBSD 1.5.1 | | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 4.4-. | | NetBSD 1.5.2 | | | | | Mac OS X | | | | | | | 10.1 | | OpenBSD 3.0 | | FreeBSD 4.5 | | | | | | | | \ | | | | BSD/OS 4.3 | FreeBSD 4.6 \ | | | OpenBSD 3.1 | | | \ | | NetBSD 1.5.3 | | | FreeBSD 4.6.2 Mac OS X | | | | | 10.2 | | | | FreeBSD 4.7 | | | | | | | NetBSD 1.6 OpenBSD 3.2 | | FreeBSD 4.8 | | | | | | | | | NetBSD 1.6.1 | | | |--------. | | | OpenBSD 3.3 BSD/OS 5.0 | | \ | | | | | | FreeBSD 4.9 | | | | OpenBSD 3.4 BSD/OS 5.1 ISE | | | | | | | | | | | | NetBSD 1.6.2 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | OpenBSD 3.5 | | | | | v | | FreeBSD 4.10 | | | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 4.11 | | | | | | | | | | -|------|-----------------|---------------------. | | | | \ FreeBSD 5.0 | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 5.1 | | | DragonFly 1.0 | \ | | | | | ----- Mac OS X | | | | 10.3 | | | FreeBSD 5.2 | | | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 5.2.1 | | | | | | | | | *-------FreeBSD 5.3 | | | | | | | | OpenBSD 3.6 | | | | NetBSD 2.0 | | | | | | | | | DragonFly 1.2.0 | | Mac OS X | | NetBSD 2.0.2 | | | | 10.4 | | | | | | FreeBSD 5.4 | | | | | | | | | | | | OpenBSD 3.7 | | | | | | NetBSD 2.0.3 | | | | | | | | | | *--FreeBSD | | | | v OpenBSD 3.8 | | 6.0 | | | | | | | | | | | \ | | | | | | | NetBSD 2.1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | NetBSD 3.0 | | | | | | | | | | DragonFly 1.4.0 | | | | | | | OpenBSD 3.9 | | FreeBSD | | | | | | | | 6.1 | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 5.5 | | | | | | | | | | | NetBSD 3.0.1 | DragonFly 1.6.0 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | OpenBSD 4.0 | | | | | | NetBSD 3.0.2 | | | | | | NetBSD 3.1 | | | FreeBSD 6.2 | | | | | | | | | DragonFly 1.8.0 | | | | OpenBSD 4.1 | | | | | | DragonFly 1.10.0 | | Mac OS X | | | | | 10.5 | | | | | | | OpenBSD 4.2 | | | | NetBSD 4.0 | | | FreeBSD 6.3 | | | | | \ | | | | *--FreeBSD | | | | DragonFly 1.12.0 | 7.0 | | | | | | | | | | OpenBSD 4.3 | | | | | | | DragonFly 2.0.0 | | FreeBSD | | OpenBSD 4.4 | | | 6.4 | | | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 7.1 | | | | | | | | | DragonFly 2.2.0 | FreeBSD 7.2 | NetBSD 5.0 OpenBSD 4.5 | | \ | | | | | | | Mac OS X | | | | | | 10.6 | | | | | | | | | | DragonFly 2.4.0 | | | | | OpenBSD 4.6 | | | | | | | | *--FreeBSD | | | | | | | 8.0 | | | | | | | | FreeBSD | | | | | | | 7.3 | | | | DragonFly 2.6.0 | | | | | | OpenBSD 4.7 | | FreeBSD | | | | | | | 8.1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | DragonFly 2.8.2 | | | | | | OpenBSD 4.8 | | | | | | NetBSD 5.1 | | | FreeBSD FreeBSD | | | | | 8.2 7.4 | | | DragonFly 2.10.1 | | | | OpenBSD 4.9 | |-----. Mac OS X | | | | \ 10.7 | | | | | | | OpenBSD 5.0 | *--FreeBSD | | | | | | 9.0 | | | | DragonFly 3.0.1 | | FreeBSD | | | | | | 8.3 | | OpenBSD 5.1 | | | Mac OS X | | | | | 10.8 | | | | | | NetBSD 6.0 | | | | | | OpenBSD 5.2 DragonFly 3.2.1 | FreeBSD | | | | | 9.1 | | | | | | | | | | | | OpenBSD 5.3 DragonFly 3.4.1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | FreeBSD 10 -current | NetBSD -current OpenBSD -current | | | | | | v v v v v

## Time

Time tolerance +/- 6 months, depending on which book/article you read; if it was the announcement in Usenet or if it was available as tape.

[44B] McKusick, Marshall Kirk, Keith Bostic, Michael J Karels, and John Quarterman. The Design and Implementation of the 4.4BSD Operating System. [APL] Apple website [http://www.apple.com/macosx/] [BSDI] Berkeley Software Design, Inc. [DFB] DragonFlyBSD Project, The. [DOC] README, COPYRIGHT on tape. [FBD] FreeBSD Project, The. [KB] Keith Bostic. BSD2.10 available from Usenix. comp.unix.sources, Volume 11, Info 4, April, 1987. [KKK] Mike Karels, Kirk McKusick, and Keith Bostic. tahoe announcement. comp.bugs.4bsd.ucb-fixes, June 15, 1988. [KSJ] Michael J. Karels, Carl F. Smith, and William F. Jolitz. Changes in the Kernel in 2.9BSD. Second Berkeley Software Distribution UNIX Version 2.9, July, 1983. [NBD] NetBSD Project, The. [OBD] OpenBSD Project, The. [QCU] Salus, Peter H. A quarter century of UNIX. [SMS] Steven M. Schultz. 2.11BSD, UNIX for the PDP-11. [TUHS] The Unix Historical Society. http://minnie.tuhs.org/Unix_History/. [USE] Usenet announcement. [WRS] Wind River Systems, Inc. [dmr] Dennis Ritchie, via E-Mail

Multics 1965 UNIX Summer 1969 DEC PDP-7 First Edition 1971-11-03 [QCU] DEC PDP-11/20, Assembler Second Edition 1972-06-12 [QCU] 10 UNIX installations Third Edition 1973-02-xx [QCU] Pipes, 16 installations Fourth Edition 1973-11-xx [QCU] rewriting in C effected, above 30 installations Fifth Edition 1974-06-xx [QCU] above 50 installations Sixth Edition 1975-05-xx [QCU] port to DEC Vax Seventh Edition 1979-01-xx [QCU] first portable UNIX Eighth Edition 1985-02-xx [QCU] VAX 11/750, VAX 11/780 [dmr] descended from 4.1c BSD [dmr] descended from 4.1 BSD [44B] scooping-out and replacement of the character-device and networking part by the streams mechanism

Ninth Edition 1986-09-xx [QCU] Tenth Edition 1989-10-xx [QCU]

1BSD late 1977 1978-03-09 [QCU] PDP-11, Pascal, ex(1) 30 free copies of 1BSD sent out 35 tapes sold for 50 USD [QCU] 2BSD mid 1978 [QCU] 1979-05-10 [TUHS] 75 2BSD tapes shipped 2.79BSD 1980-04-xx [TUHS] 2.8BSD 1981-07-xx [KSJ]

2.8.1BSD 1982-01-xx [QCU] set of performance improvements 2.9BSD 1983-07-xx [KSJ] 2.9.1BSD 1983-11-xx [TUHS] 2.9BSD-Seismo 1985-08-xx [SMS] 2.10BSD 1987-04-xx [KKK] 2.10.1BSD 1989-01-xx [SMS] 2.11BSD 1992-02-xx [SMS] 2.11BSD rev #430 1999-12-13 [SMS]

32V 1978-1[01]-xx [QCU] 3BSD late 1979 [QCU] March 1980 [TUHS] virtual memory, page replacement, demand paging 4.0BSD 1980-10-xx 4.1BSD 1981-07-08 [DOC] 4.1aBSD 1982-04-xx alpha release, 100 sites, networking [44B] 4.1bBSD internal release, fast filesystem [44B] 4.1cBSD late 1982 beta release, IPC [44B] 4.2BSD 1983-09-xx [QCU] 1983-08-03 [DOC] 4.3BSD 1986-06-xx [QCU] 1986-04-05 [KB], [DOC] 4.3BSD Tahoe 1988-06-15 [QCU], [DOC] 4.3BSD NET/1 1988-11-xx [QCU] 1989-01-01 [DOC] 4.3BSD Reno 1990-06-29 [QCU], [DOC] 4.3BSD NET/2 1991-06-28 [QCU], [DOC]

BSD/386 ALPHA 1991-12-xx [BSDI] first code released to people outside BSDI 386BSD 0.0 1992-02-xx [DOC] BSD/386 0.3.1 1992-04-xx [BSDI] first ext. beta; B customers BSD/386 0.3.3 1992-06-xx [BSDI] first CDROM version 386BSD 0.1 1992-07-28 [DOC] 4.4BSD Alpha 1992-07-07 BSD/386 0.9.3 1992-10-xx [BSDI] first external gamma; G customers BSD/386 0.9.4 1992-12-xx [BSDI] would have been 1.0 except for request for preliminary injunction BSD/386 1.0 1993-03-xx [BSDI] injunction denied; first official release NetBSD 0.8 1993-04-20 [NBD] 4.4BSD 1993-06-01 [USE] NetBSD 0.9 1993-08-23 [NBD] FreeBSD 1.0 1993-11-01 [FBD] FreeBSD 1.0.2 1993-11-14 [FBD] supersedes 1.0 13 days after release. BSD/386 1.1 1994-02-xx [BSDI] 4.4BSD Lite 1994-03-01 [USE] FreeBSD 1.1 1994-05-07 [FBD] FreeBSD 1.1.5 1994-06-30 [FBD] FreeBSD 1.1.5.1 1994-07-05 [FBD] supersedes 1.1.5 5 days after release. NetBSD 1.0 1994-10-26 [NBD] 386BSD 1.0 1994-11-12 [USE] FreeBSD 2.0 1994-11-23 [FBD] BSD/OS 2.0 1995-01-xx [BSDI] 4.4 lite based FreeBSD 2.0.5 1995-06-10 [FBD] BSD/OS 2.0.1 1995-06-xx [BSDI] 4.4BSD Lite Release 2 1995-06-xx [44B] the true final distribution from the CSRG FreeBSD 2.1.0 1995-11-19 [FBD] NetBSD 1.1 1995-11-26 [NBD] BSD/OS 2.1 1996-01-xx [BSDI] FreeBSD 2.1.5 1996-07-14 [FBD] NetBSD 1.2 1996-10-04 [NBD] OpenBSD 2.0 1996-10-18 [OBD] FreeBSD 2.1.6 1996-11-16 [FBD] FreeBSD 2.1.6.1 1996-11-25 [FBD] (sendmail security release) Rhapsody 1997-xx-xx FreeBSD 2.1.7 1997-02-20 [FBD] BSD/OS 3.0 1997-02-xx [BSDI] 4.4 lite2 based FreeBSD 2.2.0 1997-03-16 [FBD] FreeBSD 2.2.1 1997-03-25 [FBD] FreeBSD 2.2.2 1997-05-16 [FBD] NetBSD 1.2.1 1997-05-20 [NBD] (patch release) OpenBSD 2.1 1997-06-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 2.2.5 1997-10-22 [FBD] OpenBSD 2.2 1997-12-01 [OBD] NetBSD 1.3 1998-01-04 [NBD] FreeBSD 2.2.6 1998-03-25 [FBD] NetBSD 1.3.1 1998-03-09 [NBD] (patch release) BSD/OS 3.1 1998-03-xx [BSDI] OpenBSD 2.3 1998-05-19 [OBD] NetBSD 1.3.2 1998-05-29 [NBD] (patch release) FreeBSD 2.2.7 1998-07-22 [FBD] BSD/OS 4.0 1998-08-xx [BSDI] 2-lock MP support, ELF executables FreeBSD 3.0 1998-10-16 [FBD] FreeBSD-3.0 is a snapshot from -current, while 3.1 and 3.2 are from 3.x-stable which was branched quite some time after 3.0-release FreeBSD 2.2.8 1998-11-29 [FBD] OpenBSD 2.4 1998-12-01 [OBD] NetBSD 1.3.3 1998-12-23 [NBD] (patch release) FreeBSD 3.1 1999-02-15 [FBD] BSD/OS 4.0.1 1999-03-xx [BSDI] NetBSD 1.4 1999-05-12 [NBD] FreeBSD 3.2 1999-05-17 [FBD] OpenBSD 2.5 1999-05-19 [OBD] NetBSD 1.4.1 1999-08-26 [NBD] (patch release) FreeBSD 3.3 1999-09-17 [FBD] OpenBSD 2.6 1999-12-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 3.4 1999-12-20 [FBD] BSD/OS 4.1 1999-12-xx [BSDI] FreeBSD 4.0 2000-03-13 [FBD] NetBSD 1.4.2 2000-03-19 [NBD] (patch release) OpenBSD 2.7 2000-06-15 [OBD] FreeBSD 3.5 2000-06-24 [FBD] FreeBSD 4.1 2000-07-27 [FBD] FreeBSD 3.5.1 2000-07-28 [FBD] FreeBSD 4.1.1 2000-09-25 [FBD] (a network-only patch release) FreeBSD 4.2 2000-11-21 [FBD] NetBSD 1.4.3 2000-11-25 [NBD] (patch release) BSD/OS 4.2 2000-11-29 [BSDI] OpenBSD 2.8 2000-12-01 [OBD] NetBSD 1.5 2000-12-06 [NBD] Mac OS X 10.0 2001-03-24 [APL] FreeBSD 4.3 2001-04-20 [FBD] OpenBSD 2.9 2001-06-01 [OBD] NetBSD 1.5.1 2001-07-11 [NBD] (patch release) NetBSD 1.5.2 2001-09-13 [NBD] (patch release) FreeBSD 4.4 2001-09-18 [FBD] Mac OS X 10.1 2001-09-29 [APL] OpenBSD 3.0 2001-12-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 4.5 2002-01-29 [FBD] BSD/OS 4.3 2002-03-14 [WRS] OpenBSD 3.1 2002-05-19 [OBD] FreeBSD 4.6 2002-06-15 [FBD] NetBSD 1.5.3 2002-07-22 [NBD] (patch release) FreeBSD 4.6.2 2002-08-15 [FBD] (patch release) Mac OS X 10.2 2002-08-23 [APL] NetBSD 1.6 2002-09-14 [NBD] FreeBSD 4.7 2002-10-08 [FBD] OpenBSD 3.2 2002-11-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 5.0 2003-01-17 [FBD] FreeBSD 5.0 is a separate branch off of -current, similar to 3.0. FreeBSD 4.8 2003-04-03 [FBD] NetBSD 1.6.1 2003-04-21 [NBD] (patch release) OpenBSD 3.3 2003-05-01 [OBD] BSD/OS 5.0 2003-05-?? [WRS] FreeBSD 5.1 2003-06-09 [FBD] Mac OS X 10.3 2003-10-24 [APL] FreeBSD 4.9 2003-10-28 [FBD] BSD/OS 5.1 ISE 2003-10-?? [WRS] (final version) OpenBSD 3.4 2003-11-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 5.2 2004-01-12 [FBD] FreeBSD 5.2.1 2004-02-22 [FBD] (patch release) NetBSD 1.6.2 2004-03-01 [NBD] (patch release) OpenBSD 3.5 2004-04-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 4.10 2004-05-27 [FBD] DragonFly 1.0 2004-07-12 [DFB] OpenBSD 3.6 2004-10-29 [OBD] FreeBSD 5.3 2004-11-06 [FBD] NetBSD 2.0 2004-12-09 [NBD] FreeBSD 4.11 2005-01-25 [FBD] DragonFly 1.2.0 2005-04-08 [DFB] NetBSD 2.0.2 2005-04-14 [NBD] (security/critical release) Mac OS X 10.4 2005-04-29 [APL] FreeBSD 5.4 2005-05-09 [FBD] OpenBSD 3.7 2005-05-19 [OBD] NetBSD 2.0.3 2005-10-31 [NBD] (security/critical release) OpenBSD 3.8 2005-11-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 6.0 2005-11-01 [FBD] NetBSD 2.1 2005-11-02 [NBD] NetBSD 3.0 2005-12-23 [NBD] DragonFly 1.4.0 2006-01-08 [DFB] OpenBSD 3.9 2006-05-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 6.1 2006-05-08 [FBD] FreeBSD 5.5 2006-05-25 [FBD] NetBSD 3.0.1 2006-07-24 [NBD] (security/critical release) DragonFly 1.6.0 2006-07-24 [DFB] OpenBSD 4.0 2006-11-01 [OBD] NetBSD 3.0.2 2006-11-04 [NBD] (security/critical release) NetBSD 3.1 2006-11-04 [NBD] FreeBSD 6.2 2007-01-15 [FBD] DragonFly 1.8.0 2007-01-30 [DFB] OpenBSD 4.1 2007-05-01 [OBD] DragonFly 1.10.0 2007-08-06 [DFB] Mac OS X 10.5 2007-10-26 [APL] OpenBSD 4.2 2007-11-01 [OBD] NetBSD 4.0 2007-12-19 [NBD] FreeBSD 6.3 2008-01-18 [FBD] DragonFly 1.12.0 2008-02-26 [DFB] FreeBSD 7.0 2008-02-27 [FBD] OpenBSD 4.3 2008-05-01 [OBD] DragonFly 2.0.0 2008-07-21 [DFB] OpenBSD 4.4 2008-11-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 6.4 2008-11-28 [FBD] FreeBSD 7.1 2009-01-04 [FBD] DragonFly 2.2.0 2009-02-17 [DFB] NetBSD 5.0 2009-04-29 [NBD] OpenBSD 4.5 2009-05-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 7.2 2009-05-04 [FBD] Mac OS X 10.6 2009-06-08 [APL] DragonFly 2.4.0 2009-09-16 [DFB] OpenBSD 4.6 2009-10-18 [OBD] FreeBSD 8.0 2009-11-26 [FBD] FreeBSD 7.3 2010-03-23 [FBD] DragonFly 2.6.0 2010-03-28 [DFB] OpenBSD 4.7 2010-05-19 [OBD] FreeBSD 8.1 2010-07-24 [FBD] DragonFly 2.8.2 2010-10-30 [DFB] OpenBSD 4.8 2010-11-01 [OBD] NetBSD 5.1 2010-11-19 [NBD] FreeBSD 7.4 2011-02-24 [FBD] FreeBSD 8.2 2011-02-24 [FBD] DragonFly 2.10.1 2011-04-26 [DFB] OpenBSD 4.9 2011-05-01 [OBD] Mac OS X 10.7 2011-07-20 [APL] OpenBSD 5.0 2011-11-01 [OBD] FreeBSD 9.0 2012-01-12 [FBD] DragonFly 3.0.1 2012-02-21 [DFB] FreeBSD 8.3 2012-04-18 [FBD] OpenBSD 5.1 2012-05-01 [OBD] Mac OS X 10.8 2012-07-25 [APL] NetBSD 6.0 2012-10-17 [NBD] OpenBSD 5.2 2012-11-01 [OBD] DragonFly 3.2.1 2012-11-02 [DFB] FreeBSD 9.1 2012-12-30 [FBD] DragonFly 3.4.1 2013-04-29 [DFB] OpenBSD 5.3 2013-05-01 [OBD]

## Bibliography

Leffler, Samuel J., Marshall Kirk McKusick, Michael J Karels and John Quarterman. The Design and Implementation of the 4.3BSD UNIX Operating System. Reading, Mass. Addison-Wesley, 1989. ISBN 0-201-06196-1

Salus, Peter H. A quarter century of UNIX. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1994. ISBN 0-201-54777-5

McKusick, Marshall Kirk, Keith Bostic, Michael J Karels, and John Quarterman. The Design and Implementation of the 4.4BSD Operating System. Reading, Mass. Addison-Wesley, 1996. ISBN 0-201-54979-4

McKusick, Marshall Kirk, George Neville-Neil. The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System. Addison-Wesley Professional, Published: Aug 2, 2004. ISBN 0-201-70245-2

Michael G. Brown. The Role of BSD in the Development of Unix. Presented to the Tasmanian Unix Special Interest Group of the Australian Computer Society, Hobart, August 1993.

Peter H. Salus. Unix at 25. Byte Magazine, October 1994. URL: http://www.byte.com/art/9410/sec8/art3.htm

Andreas Klemm, Lars KÃ¶ller. If you're going to San Francisco ... Die freien BSD-Varianten von Unix. c't April 1997, page 368ff.

BSD Release Announcements collection. URL: http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/

BSD Hypertext Man Pages URL: http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/man.cgi

UNIX history graphing project URL: http://minnie.tuhs.org/Unix_History/index.html

UNIX history URL: http://www.levenez.com/unix/

James Howard: The BSD Family Tree URL: http://ezine.daemonnews.org/200104/bsd_family.html ("what are the differences between FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD?")

## Acknowledgments

Josh Gilliam for suggestions, bug fixes, and finding very old original BSD announcements from Usenet or tapes.

Steven M. Schultz for providing 2.8BSD, 2.10BSD, 2.11BSD manual pages.

-- Copyright (c) 1997-2012 Wolfram Schneider wosch@FreeBSD.ORG URL: http://cvsweb.freebsd.org/src/share/misc/bsd-family-tree

$FreeBSD: src/share/misc/bsd-family-tree,v 1.163 2013/05/02 00:38:57 svnexp Exp$